May 24th, 2023
This is important to recognize since the prevailing understanding is that lower wavelength penetrate deeper and here we see that 1064 is penetrating slightly deeper than 905nm. I share this to help in our overall appreciation of how much variability there is in the impact of different wavelengths through skin and other tissues. I hope we can see more evidence in future in vivo human studies. The peak transmission through water is at this 1060-1070nm range and so our thinking is that given the brain is 70% water thereby conferring greater impact on cellular activity.
Abstract: The choice of parameters for laser beams used in the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases
is of great importance. First, to reach high penetration depths into biological tissue and, secondly,
to achieve the required effects on a molecular level. The penetration depth depends on the wavelength
since there are multiple light-absorbing and scattering molecules in tissue with different
absorption spectra. The present study is the first comparing the penetration depth of 1064 nm laser
light with light of a smaller wavelength (905 nm) using high-fidelity laser measurement technology.
Penetration depths in two types of tissue ex vivo (porcine skin and bovine muscle) were investigated.
The transmittance of 1064 nm light through both tissue types was consistently higher than of
905 nm light. The largest differences (up to 5.9%) were seen in the upper 10 mm of tissue, while the
difference vanished with increasing tissue thickness. Overall, the differences in penetration depth
were comparably small. These results may be of relevance in the selection of a certain wavelength in
the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with laser therapy.
Quietmind is working to better articulate the importance of the various wavelengths and studying how best to leverage their benefits in producing better clinical outcomes and a higher level of precision medical application of near-infrared photobiomodulation.
The Divided Brain, Neuroplasticity and How We to Recover our Health and Wellbeing -Useful Advice from Gary Sharpe
I am grateful to Gary for having written this as it saved me a lot of time and captures a great many points I find of particular importance for the people with whom we are working at Quietmind Fdn. and those with whom we consult through the online consultation program at Neuronic Devices Ltd. I strongly suggest everyone give a close reading to the following and incorporate into your lives as much of the suggested lifestyle and behavioral advice as you can.
this article, I seek to coherently bring together three of the major themes which run through and inform my writings, and explain how these all fit together, and what this tells us about the human condition. The three parts/themes are:
We begin with the research of Dr Iain McGilchrist, on the different ways that the left and right hemispheres of our brains work. For anyone unfamiliar with his work, I highly recommend the short RSA Animation. An interesting and relevant side note here from the video is that, as well as being functionally totally asymmetric, our brains are physically highly asymmetric too!
Let us begin with some quotes from McGilchrist’s book “The Master and His Emissary”.
“The right brain hemisphere is deeply connected to the self as 'embodied'. The left carries an image of only the contralateral right side of the body - when the right hemisphere is incapacitated, the left side of the body virtually ceases to exist for that person! The right lobe, however, has a whole body image, disturbances to this lobe lead to profound illnesses, such as body dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa.”
“The right and left also see the body in different ways... the right is responsible for our sense of body as something in which we 'live'... for the left, the body is something from which we are relatively detached, a thing, devitalized. There is greater proprioceptive awareness in the right, where it is far more closely linked to physiological changes that occur in the body when we experience emotions.”
Proprioception is the sense of location and movement of our own body parts.
McGilchrist provides illustrative case studies revealing just how deep and profound right hemisphere damage goes:
“the left appears to see the body as an assemblage of parts... if the right is not functioning properly, e.g after a right hemisphere stroke, the left may actually deny having anything to do with a body part which does not seem to be working according to the left's instructions... One person believed quite firmly that the paralysed arm belonged to her mother!”
I often use this example to illustrate just how profoundly delusional we can be when we are stuck in left-hemisphere overactivated states. Another important point for later is that, according to McGilchrist, the right hemisphere is also mainly responsible for our “social engagement functions”, including “prosody” of voice [the melodic, emotional content of speech], and facial expression. According to McGilchrist, not only do these tend to go offline with right hemisphere damage, so does the ability to recognize emotions in the faces and voices of others.
The Asymmetric Body
While McGilchrist’s work is illustrated by what happens to folks who have lost functionality of the right hemisphere due to physical damage, e.g. from a stroke, the research of Dr Joaquin Farias and Bonnie Badenoch reveals that the right brain hemisphere can go in to [emotional] “shock”, e.g. due to a chronic illness, or trauma. Basically, even though there is no physical damage, our right hemispheres can get temporarily shutdown when under chronic stress or duress, with similar outcomes as if we had had a right hemisphere stroke!
According to Farias, dystonia, abnormal muscle tensions, chronic pain, and movement disorders result from the brain forgetting or losing sight of specific muscles, typically on the left side, and thus muscles on the opposite side (usually the right) over-compensate, thus becoming permanently cramped and chronically painful, all caused by right hemisphere going into cortical shock. This concurs with McGilchrist’s perspective that, when the right hemisphere is not functioning, the brain loses the sense of half the body.
This led me to wondering whether internal organs could also be affected, as well as the muscles. Indeed, does a right cortical shock due to chronic stress also mean we lose some of our internal senses of our bodily functions - our “interoception”, as well as our proprioception? If indeed "when the right hemisphere is incapacitated, the left side of the body virtually ceases to exist for that person" what does this mean for the feedback and proper working of the parts inside our body on the left?
I think this is a very interesting idea to consider, since our internal workings are far from symmetrical, as shown in the image below from wikipedia. So if we now consider a right cortical shock, which internal parts to left might also be forgotten?
The most notable organ highly orientated to the left is the spleen. The spleen is crucial for proper immune function, infection control and the lymph system. Auto-immune type symptoms, poor response to infections, and inflammatory issues abound in those of us with trauma issues, chronic conditions, and when we are under chronic stress, indicating that indeed poor spleen function could be at play.
Note the heart does not lie symmetrically across the bodies centre line, either. Could a right cortical shock go hand in hand with poor heart rate variability (HRV), which is associated with a weakened response to external and internal stressors? Again, HRV tends to be notably downregulated when we are suffering from chronic conditions. We will explore, and provide some answers to, this question, more below.
The shape of the stomach and the intestines are also highly asymmetrical, e.g. the ascending colon and the descending colon are on opposites sides. Would my idea therefore help make sense of why those of us suffering trauma and chronic conditions tend to have very significant issues with digestion, food sensitivities, irritable bowel type disorders, constipation, etc.?
Below are some notes from the very interesting scientific article “Vagal Tone and the Physiological Regulation of Emotion” by Dr Stephen Porges, and co-workers. Indeed, I found this particularly interesting because it appears to provide the physiological link between McGilchrist's divided brain research, which looks at the different functions of the left and right hemisphere's of the brain, and Farias' cortical shock model, which explains movement disorders and dysautonomia as originating from the right hemisphere going into shutdown due to an [emotional] shock.
“The Vagus Nerve is bilateral, with a Left and a Right branch. Each branch has two source nuclei (dorsal and ventral) where the nerve fibres originate in [the brainstem]” So as well as Dorsal and Ventral Vagus Nerves branches, there are Left and Right branches of both as well, which run down either sides of our necks and then wander off to various organs.
“Pathways from the Left and Right Dorsal Vagus Nerve to the stomach have different regulatory functions. The Left Dorsal Vagus innervates the cardiac and body portions of the stomach that promote primarily secretion of gastric fluids.”
So here is a first illustration that the functions of the left and right branches of the Vagus Nerve are asymmetric in function.
“The Right Dorsal Vagus innervates the lower portion of the stomach that controls the pyloric sphincter regulating the emptying into the duodenum [allowing emptying of the stomach into the small intestine].”
So the left and right branches of the Dorsal Vagus are both intimately involved in the gut, but do different things there. Dysregulation of the Right Dorsal Vagus, e.g. due to damage to the right side of the brain, will have specific impacts on digestion.
“The Ventral Vagus is also lateralized. Whie the Right one provides the primary input to the sino-atrial (S-A) node [a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, which spontaneously produce an electrical impulse, that travels through the heart, causing it to contract, setting the rhythm of the heart] to regulate atrial rate and determine heart rate, the Left one provides the primary input to the atrio-ventricular (A-V) node [co-ordinates the top of the heart] to regulate ventricular rate."
So both the Left and Right Ventral Vagus Nerve branches are involved with the heart, but again they have different, asymmetric functions. “...characteristics of right-side brain damage are associated with defective Right Ventral Vagus regulation. In this manner, the observed deficits in prosody [melodic tone of voice] and in heart-rate changes… associated with right-side brain damage… implicate the Right Ventral Vagus in the regulation of vocal intonation and attention.”
Indeed, so this provides the physical link between McGilchrist's divided brain research and Farias's "right cortical shock" model of dystonia and dysautonomia: during a right hemisphere cortical shock, the Right Ventral Vagus will also be downregulated and partially offline, resulting in the loss of control of the motor and organ functions that it is primarily responsible for.
One of the major pragmatic reasons for sharing this information is to help us all to be more understanding and forgiving of how the people in our lives are affected by chronic conditions, stress and trauma. Hopefully, this knowledge allows us to have more compassion when others necessarily disconnect from us, or behave in seemingly hurtful ways, due solely to involuntary physiological shifts that occur when they are under stress and duress. Furthermore, it instructive that, if we wish to help, we need to engage folks who are suffering in ways which will activate and stimulate their right hemispheres, and Vagus Nerves, and to avoid causing these to shutdown even harder. In other words, I hope it reveals something important about the human condition.
Moving on to how this information helps us to help ourselves. Firstly, it allows us to recognize when we are stressed, or not in a healthy state, ourselves, based on how disconnected or dissociated we are from our own body and how disconnected we are feeling from people in our lives. Secondly, it allows us to recognize that chronic stress is a root cause of many physiological symptoms, and that stress reduction and trauma healing is therefore key and vital to physical symptom reduction.
It also informs us that we can benefit through practices which activate and strengthen the right hemisphere and the Vagus Nerve, so as to build resilience against them shutting down. These systems tend to atrophy with lack of use, and hence one can get in to viscous circles of them become weaker and shutting off more easily, so it is vital to exercise to them. Dancing and tai chi are particularly beneficial for increasing proprioception and interception. Singing is particularly beneficial for exercising the social engagement circuits.
Basically, we need to engage in “neural exercises”, and also make changes in our lives, which activate and bolster the right hemisphere’s way of attending to the world. Similarly, engaging in practices which increase “Vagal Tone”, as measured through heart rate variability, through Vagus Nerve stimulating activities, will also help.
For example, Dr Farias has created a “Dystonia Recovery Programme”, where he offers a wide variety of neural exercises based on these concepts. I also keep and provide a master list of suggestions of things we can do to improve matters here:
Here is a list of things which my studies lead me to believe are most helpful for living a healthy, good life. These include the need to be doing everything we can to calm our Nervous Systems, Immune Systems, inflammation, stressful emotional states and anxious thoughts, to address unhealthy relationships, to restore a sense of internal and external safety, and to send the message to our biology that “the war is over”. I would currently summarize these as:
Study PI, Indu Subramanian, MD, clinical professor, Department of Neurology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles Indu Subramanian, MD, clinical professor, Department of Neurology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles found adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and reduced quality of life (QOL).
Sadly and not surprisingly, this was the first study evaluating childhood trauma and PD. Subjects with PD who reported more than one ACE all experienced a statistically significant decrease in QOL, and for each additional ACE, there was significant worsening of motor symptoms.
I'm pleased that our research on the use of transcranial 1070nm photobiomodulation (tPBM) rapidly produced a decrease in both motor and behavioral symptoms in PD subjects. The data was obtained during post study narrative reviews with clinical trial subjects who were enrolled in a expanded feasibility trial focusing on tPBM impact on cognition. A subgroup of subjects were dually diagnosed with PD and early to mid-stage dementia and these subjects and their caregivers reported significant improvement in both cognitive, motor, expressiveness, sleep quality and decreased apathy.
The study was published online February 20 in Neurology: Clinical Practice .
For information on tPBM therapy click here
I think this offers substantive support for the use of directed neurostimulation as a structural, tissue-level substrate for the future design of integrative digital neurotherapeutics. This paper outlines how direct current stimulation can achieve these results and we already know that photobiomodulation can do the same and more at molecular and possibly deeper levels of organization.
This article was timely in that I wanted to present something about how entrainment influences neuroplasticity as a way to underscore the relevance of using specific QEEG-informed pulse frequencies in the delivery of tPBM. This paper is helpful specifically as it relates to visual processing efficiency, i.e., perceptual decision making. It is not much of an inference to extrapolate to other sensory processes and the likelihood that their functionality will be positively effected using the same methodology. The Neuradiant 1070+ technology integrated this principle by including pulse frequency control in 4 independent quadrants.
From the abstract:
Training is known to improve our ability to make decisions when interacting in complex environments. However, individuals vary in their ability to learn new tasks and acquire new skills in different settings. Here, we test whether this variability in learning ability relates to individual brain oscillatory states. We use a visual flicker paradigm to entrain individuals at their own brain rhythm (i.e. peak alpha frequency) as measured by resting-state electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrate that this individual frequency-matched brain entrainment results in faster learning in a visual identification task (i.e. detecting targets embedded in background clutter) compared to entrainment that does not match an individual’s alpha frequency. Further, we show that learning is specific to the phase relationship between the entraining flicker and the visual target stimulus. EEG during entrainment showed that individualized alpha entrainment boosts alpha power, induces phase alignment in the pre-stimulus period, and results in shorter latency of early visual evoked potentials, suggesting that brain entrainment facilitates early visual processing to support improved perceptual decisions. These findings suggest that individualized brain entrainment may boost perceptual learning by altering gain control mechanisms in the visual cortex, indicating a key role for individual neural oscillatory states in learning and brain plasticity.
Ritualized compulsive comfort-seeking (what traditionalists call addiction) is a normal response to the adversity experienced in childhood, just like bleeding is a normal response to being stabbed. Dr. Dan Sumrok makes this very cogent point concerning the neuropsychophysiological basis of what we commonly refer to as addition. Many have spoken about the broken D2 dopamine receptor gene theory created by scientists like pharmacology professor Kenneth Blum Ph.D to stop craving reactions. Gabor Mate, MD (In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction) made the point that addiction occurs in contexts where attachment bonds are broken or absent. Neurofeedback pioneers showed that addiction and criminal behavior could be eliminated without drugs using brain repatterning techniques.
We should now add photobiomodulation to this list of noninvasive interventions that can be employed to help repair damaged brain functioning with properly targeted, transcranial pulsed infrared light stimulation. Our work at Quietmind Fdn. and and in collaboration with Neuronic Devices Ltd. is focused on development integrated assessment and therapeutic technologies that can rebalance traumatized dysfunctional brain networks and confer protection against further damage.
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In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction (Paperback)
Paying attention to our brain’s well-being ensures that our mental health and cognitive abilities are in top shape. Some excellent ways to take care of your brain health are exercising, socializing, and having a nutritious diet. However, many Americans miss one factor they don’t realize is crucial for their minds — light.
Sunlight is essential in regulating serotonin and melatonin. These are connected to mood and cognitive function. Yet Verywell Mind reports that despite the benefits of sunlight, around a billion people worldwide have insufficient exposure to it. Unfortunately, not everyone can have ample sunlight where they are. As a solution, they can try out light therapy. Here’s what you need to know about this vital treatment.
How does light therapy work?
Light therapy is an indoor treatment used to promote cognitive function and treat various mental health conditions. It does this by using artificial light to simulate both sunshine and its effect on our brains. This allows light therapy to boost the production of melatonin and serotonin in your body. It also helps you receive a dose of vitamin D, which is essential for the immune system, muscular health, and mental health.
The treatment uses light devices like a light therapy box or lamp, which emit bright light, or headset devices like the Vielight or the Cognitolite, which emit infrared light. Depending on the device used, patients are instructed on the optimal distance from the light and the duration needed to get their daily dose.
How can light therapy help you?
One of the most common conditions that light therapy addresses is seasonal affective disorder (SAD) — also called the winter blues or seasonal depression — which, as its name suggests, is a kind of depression tied to the changing of the seasons. Light therapy works since it mimics the natural sunlight that cooler seasons lack.
Light therapy sessions have shown immediate improvements in cognitive performance, mood, and energy. As such, it’s been used to address various mental health conditions and circadian rhythm disorders. Most importantly, it can also benefit our cognitive function to arrest the development of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases.
What do you need to consider before going into light therapy?
As long as you stick to the prescribed distance and duration according to your light therapy device, the treatment is generally harmless. However, people with particular health conditions may not be suited for the treatment. The biggest risks in light therapy are skin and eye damage, especially for those with preexisting medical conditions. It may also harm those taking medications that heighten one's sensitivity to light. In these cases, prolonged periods of light therapy may manifest in sunburns or dermatitis.
If any of these may apply to you, consult your physician before trying light therapy. Consider a telehealth consultation if you can’t afford or find a doctor to consult, especially as America is currently experiencing a doctor shortage. Pennsylvania is working to become part of the Interstate Medical Licensure Compact, allowing doctors to practice telehealth across states. So remote physicians in Delaware — where many doctors who work in telehealth specialize in primary care — can treat patients in Greater Philadelphia and vice versa for greater access and affordability. By availing of these services, you can have the overall state of your health diagnosed and see how you can safely benefit from light therapy.
Light therapy can help expose us safely to light, benefitting many brain areas. By ensuring that you can safely make use of this treatment, you can improve your mental health and prolong your cognitive function. For more information on light therapy, you can check us out here on Quietmind.
Article was specially written for https://www.quietmindfdn.org/ by Alice Palmer
January 02nd, 2023
I'm very happy to share this recently published findings of a recent study of 940nm stimulation using 300 LEDs emitting 200mw and the total power density 2.9cm2 15min/day for a week.
Just in case there's anyone still wondering about how challenging COVID 19 infections can be to our brain functioning, there's this report from Harvard.
Olfactory viral infection and dementia
It has been known that dementia can effect our sense of smell and that a biomarker of the smell of leather has been around for quite some time. The new study evidence from University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus points to a more generalized statement regarding COVID 19 causing olfactory inflammation. I believe we can use olfactory ERP measures to evaluate the severity of inflammation and then determine the efficacy of intranasal tPBM therapy using the same measures.
Quietmind is developing pilot trials using intranasal 1070nm stimulation, contact email@example.com with questions on enrollment.
Our team regularly publishes articles and blog posts on the latest research and news coming out of our group and the field in general.